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New York: Oxford University Press. https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/iran-iraq-war-1980, Karsh, Efraim "Iran–Iraq War (1980– "Iran–Iraq War Iranian forces were surprised by and unprepared for the attack. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, Causes, Events & Political Figures of the Gulf War, The League of Nations: Definition, Members & Failure, The Sino-Soviet Split: History, Causes & Effects, Causes, Timeline & Effects of the Suez Crisis, The War in Afghanistan: Causes, Timeline & Controversy, What Was the Mandate System? The role of the United States and Soviet Union was very important, dating back to the Cold War . Throughout the war, Iraq had the support of most Arab states, the Gulf states in particular (to which it became seriously indebted, a factor in the origin of the Gulf War of 1991), the Soviet Union, and the United States, which in the later stages of the war supplied it with weapons and intelligence, and which actually carried out naval strikes on its behalf in the Persian Gulf. Iraq and Iran would continue on their paths towards further instability, and the region would see much more conflict in the years to come. Encyclopedia.com. Specific types of warfare are discussed under Economic War…, Tactics FundamentalsLand Warfare TacticsNaval Warfare TacticsAir Warfare Tactics Iraqi missile and aerial bombing of Iranian oil shipping led Iran to retaliate against the shipping of neutral Arab states such as Kuwait, which Iran accused of collaborating with Iraq by providing billions of dollars in loans. official you have information for CIA. This was able to happen as the Iraqi armed forces started controlling security of their own nation.eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'thefinertimes_com-leader-1','ezslot_14',118,'0','0'])); In 2009 American and Iraqi forces in a combined operation killed the leader of al-Qaeda in Iraq, Abu Ayyub al-Masri. U.S. official. Its leader, Ayatollah Khomeini, had proclaimed a policy of exporting its Shiʿite Islamic ideology, an implicit threat to the Baʿthist state in Iraq, a secular, Sunni-dominated regime that kept itself in power partly by suppressing its Shiʿa majority. "Iran-Iraq War Bush accused Iraq of starting to develop weapons of mass destruction and to ensure UN weapons inspectors were allowed full access to Iraq weapons, something they had not fully had. FEN Learning is part of Sandbox Networks, a digital learning company that operates education services and products for the 21st century. Yet repeated Iranian attempts to make inroads into Iraqi territory were unsuccessful, and Iraq repeatedly used chemical weapons against Iran. All rights reserved. Reviewed by Jason U. Manosevitz.. One would be hard pressed to find a region in the world today where conflict is as prevalent as the Middle East. By 1984, Iraq had lost an estimated 150,000 soldiers, while Iran had lost twice that many. Within Iraq, Iran's revolution had emboldened an antigovernment movement among some Shiʿite Muslims, although the actual extent of this opposition may have been exaggerated in the minds of officials. 's' : ''}}. ." (48–49, 87)  The problems were that the military professionals who survived Saddam’s political purges before the conflict struggled to translate Saddam’s aim to lead the Arab world into operational military plans and Saddam did not understand his own military capabilities. Murray is an adjunct professor at the US Marine Corps University, a senior fellow at the Potomac Institute, and a professor emeritus at Ohio State University. What countries were involved in the Iran-Iraq War? 2009 to date saw a reduction in troops in Iraq and a redeployment of coalition troops within the country. ." CIA or go to a U.S. Embassy or Consulate and ask for the information to be passed to a Summary of the Protective Eye of Horus Symbol, Ten Worst Terrorist Acts of the Past Decade. The Office of Public Affairs (OPA) is the single point of contact for all inquiries about the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. American policies during the war were driven by the goal of containing the new Iranian regime, which had threatened American hegemony in the Middle East. Study.com has thousands of articles about every After you have finished with this lesson, you should be able to: To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member. Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. After initial advances, the Iraqi offense was repulsed. I have no hesitation in saying that today’s intelligence analysts will want to add this work of Murray and Woods to their collection of case studies on conflict. ." Not sure about the geography of the middle east? You can test out of the Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/environment/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/iran-iraq-war. In The Persian Gulf War: Lessons for Strategy, Law, and Diplomacy, edited by Christopher C. Joyner. They thoroughly review the rise of Iraq’s Saddam and Iran’s Khomeini, the sweeping changes in Baghdad and Teheran’s military institutions that followed, the shifting military balance between the two, and the respective orders of battle on the eve of the war. Several excellent works have examined aspects of the Iran-Iraq War, including the US’s Iran-Contra affair. ." Dictionary of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Something the Iraq regime was not happy about as they said it went against their right to sovereignty. ." In the months leading up to the outbreak of war, Saddam began strengthening and mobilizing his massive military forces. Discover the CIA history, mission, vision and values. Encyclopedia.com. [1] It is doubtful at the time that anyone realized the one-month old conflict would become one of the longest, bloodiest wars of the 20th century (September 1980–August 1988) or a key national security issue for the Reagan administration.

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